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Many cases of convergent evolution are thought to arise in response to similar selective pressures driving similar adaptations in different species.

However, the thylacine’s extinction and the resulting paucity of molecular data has thus far prevented analyses that could clarify the genetic basis of this adaptive phenotypic convergence.

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Map Damage analysis of reads mapped to the thylacine de novo contigs failed to detect cytosine deamination, a standard characteristic of historical and ancient DNA (Supplementary Fig. This is likely to be due to the relatively young age of the sample and its method of preservation.

The placement of the thylacine within the order of carnivorous marsupials, Dasyuromorphia, has been a subject of much contention for over a century.

Furthermore, our current understanding of several key aspects of the thylacine’s evolutionary history, including its placement within the carnivorous marsupials and its genetic diversity before extinction, are built on mitochondrial data and only a small number of nuclear loci We extracted DNA from the soft tissue of a 108-year-old, alcohol-preserved thylacine pouch young specimen (Fig. DNA fragments between 300–600 bp were isolated and sequenced on Illumina platforms (Supplementary Fig.

We assessed the quality of the data by mapping reads to the genome of the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), the most closely related species available.European settlers deemed the thylacine a threat to the Tasmanian sheep industry and the government aggressively targeted it for eradication by offering a £1.00 bounty for each animal killed.Consequently, the remaining population was rapidly exterminated and the last known thylacine died at the Hobart Zoo in 1936.For comparison, we mapped the thylacine data to two other marsupial genomes, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii).As expected, the percentage of reads that mapped decreased with increased phylogenetic distance between the reference genome and thylacine (Supplementary Fig. The thylacine sequence data was then used to assemble contigs de novo.

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Here we have sequenced the genome of a preserved thylacine pouch young specimen to clarify the phylogenetic position of the thylacine within the carnivorous marsupials, reconstruct its historical demography and examine the genetic basis of its convergence with canids.