One option is for the defendant and the witnesses to be very careful about discussing case strategy and testimony.
For example, spouses or close relatives and friends might agree only to discuss the case when they are with the attorney providing representation in the case.
Lawyers often tell their clients not to talk about a case with anyone, but this also is not realistic if two people live together or were present at the same event and are involved in trial preparation together.
Even if a witness denies being influenced by the defendant, another person or the prosecutor can accuse the defendant of improper influence.
Defendants can sometimes get themselves in trouble with the belief that talking things out with a witness may help resolve the matter or convince the witness to see things differently.
A defendant should never do this alone (or without an attorney present) as it can easily result in the witness perceiving the conversation as an attempt to influence testimony.
Coercion and intimidation can involve threats other than physical violence or property damage.
An employer could threaten an employee’s job or promise a promotion if the employee will testify in a certain way or refuse to testify.
Others require a use of force, threat of force, or use of intimidation or coercion.If a person threatens or tries to influence a witness’s testimony of the defendant or the prosecution, he has committed a crime.If a relative or friend of the defendant threatens a witness or someone involved in or supporting the prosecution tries to bribe a witness, for example, both have committed witness tampering.If a relationship with a witness is more distant, such as a co-worker relationship, the defendant can make it a practice to talk with the other person only about matters pertaining to work.The defendant can even explain this to the other person that there will be no discussion about the case and certainly no attempt to influence the other person’s testimony.
Thus, any court action is by C, who is injured against A who used B to injure him.